Not all the consequences of climate change, habitat change and extinction, or invasive species on Arctic biodiversity are fully known or can be fully predicted. For example, the decline of perennial sea ice also affects algae living on ice. Changes in the basic production of ice algae will have significant effects on the food chain, and those changes extend all the way to humans (CAFF 2017).
In terms of diversity, expanding human activities are a risk and increase the pressure on the environment. As a result of habitat fragmentation, populations are declining. The smaller the strain, the faster it loses genetic diversity and the less able it is to adapt to change in the future. It is the diversity of nature and genetic variation that will allow Arctic nature to continue to adapt and survive.