Climate change and human activities threaten biodiversity in the Arctic. The warming climate makes the living conditions tough for species adapted to cold and more suitable for southern species (CAFF 2019). Arctic nature has to give way to industry, agriculture, infrastructure, logging and invasive species, and pollution such as microplastics has spread all the way to watercourses and seabed (CAFF 2013;Finnish Environment Institute SYKE 2020.)
Increasing offshore activities such as oil drilling, deep-sea excavation, commercial fishing, shipping, pollution and noise can significantly disrupt marine mammalian populations and the already complex socio-ecological relations in the Arctic (CAFF 2017).
It is predicted that as temperatures rise, the tundra in the Arctic will decrease significantly in the current century (CAFF 2013). ). In Finland, it is estimated that, due to climate change, the living conditions of northern fell species in particular will deteriorate. Many species, such as the Siberian tit, shore lark and long-tailed duck have already declined and many butterfly species in northern forests and fells have decreased.