LABECOKiiruna (Kuva: J. Jokimäki)

Scope and Types of Environmental Impacts(LABECO)

The objective of LABECO was to find bio-indicators suitable for monitoring the environmental effects for tourist destinations.

The state of tourist destinations and the surrounding nature was assessed by using:

  • Point count data on birds 
  • Occurrence of disturbance-sensitive species
  • Wildlife triangle survey data
  • Indicators of sustainable nature-based tourism
  • Methods of monitoring trampling resistance 

The task produced:

  • A guidebook on bio-indicators 
  • An exhibition on the nature impacts of tourism
  • A list of suitable indicators to evaluate and monitor the state of tourist destinations

 

Indicator

Specific measure

Landscape indicators

Tolerance level of landscape for the change

Landscape structure

 

Quality of green areas

Green area hierarchy

 

Visual diversity

Landscape nodes

 

Attraction values of the landscape

Number of tourists

 

Customer satisfaction

Customer satisfaction index

Geological and hydrogeological indicators

Geological diversity

Survival of local soil and bedrock monuments

 

Sustainable use of extractable soil

Use of extractable soil recourses

 

Hydrology I

Amount and quality of ground and surface water

 

Hydrology II

Eutrophication of waters

 

Hydrology III

Amount of run-off water

 

Hydrology IV

Hydrogeological changes

 

Susceptibility of terrain

Survival of bedrock and soil resources

 

Erosion of trails

Erosion of trails

Ecological indicators

Survival of wilderness species

Proportion wilderness birds of the community

 

Urbanization of nature

Proportion of urban birds of the community

 

Urbanization of species

Number of magpies and crows

 

Occurrence of disturbance-sensitive species

Territory occupancy and breeding success of the Golden Eagle

 

Breeding success of birds

Artificial nest losses

 

Wear of trails

Width and depth of trails

 

Wear of alpine heats I

Total cover of mosses and lichens

 

Wear alpine heats II

Cover of crowberry

 

Comfortableness of the environment

Amount of litter in rest points

Social indicators

Participation

Communication about the land use planning and changes

 

Interactive planning and collaborative learning

Participation of local actors on public hearings/meetings, e.g. master plan meetings

 

Acceptability of tourism

How local people see the tourism

 

Land and resource use of locals

Opportunity to continue traditional land use

 

Contact details:

Project Coordinator
Jukka Jokimäki
University of Lapland
Arctic Centre
P.O.Box 122
96101-FI Rovaniemi
FINLAND
 
email: firstname.lastname@ulapland.fi
 

Main publications:

Jokimäki, J. & Kaisanlahti-Jokimäki, M.-L.. (toim.) 2007 :  Sustainability indicators for tourist destinations (in Finnish with English summary and conlusions). -Arktisen keskuksen tiedotteita 52. Lapin yliopisto, Arktinen keskus. Painatuskeskus Finland, Rovaniemi. 80 s.

Sulkava, P. & Norokorpi, Y. (toim.) 2007: Impact of nature tourism on vegetation and erosion in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park (In Finnish with English documentation page). -Metsähallituksen luonnonsuojelujulkaisuja. Sarja A 166.

Kangas, K., Sulkava, P., Koivuniemi, P., Tolvanen, A., Siikamäki, P. & Norokorpi, Y. 2007:  What determines the area of impact around campsites? A case study in a Finnish national park. -Forest Snow and Landscape Research 81: 139-150.

Kaisanlahti- Jokimäki, M.-L., Jokimäki, J., Huhta, E., Ukkola, M., Helle, P. & Ollila, T. 2008:  Territory occupancy and breeding success of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) around tourist destinations in northern Finland. -Ornis Fennica 85: xx-xx (in press).

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