LABECOKiiruna (Kuva: J. Jokimäki)

Scope and Types of Environmental Impacts(LABECO)

The objective of LABECO was to find bio-indicators suitable for monitoring the environmental effects for tourist destinations.

The state of tourist destinations and the surrounding nature was assessed by using:

  • Point count data on birds 
  • Occurrence of disturbance-sensitive species
  • Wildlife triangle survey data
  • Indicators of sustainable nature-based tourism
  • Methods of monitoring trampling resistance 

The task produced:

  • A guidebook on bio-indicators 
  • An exhibition on the nature impacts of tourism
  • A list of suitable indicators to evaluate and monitor the state of tourist destinations



Specific measure

Landscape indicators

Tolerance level of landscape for the change

Landscape structure


Quality of green areas

Green area hierarchy


Visual diversity

Landscape nodes


Attraction values of the landscape

Number of tourists


Customer satisfaction

Customer satisfaction index

Geological and hydrogeological indicators

Geological diversity

Survival of local soil and bedrock monuments


Sustainable use of extractable soil

Use of extractable soil recourses


Hydrology I

Amount and quality of ground and surface water


Hydrology II

Eutrophication of waters


Hydrology III

Amount of run-off water


Hydrology IV

Hydrogeological changes


Susceptibility of terrain

Survival of bedrock and soil resources


Erosion of trails

Erosion of trails

Ecological indicators

Survival of wilderness species

Proportion wilderness birds of the community


Urbanization of nature

Proportion of urban birds of the community


Urbanization of species

Number of magpies and crows


Occurrence of disturbance-sensitive species

Territory occupancy and breeding success of the Golden Eagle


Breeding success of birds

Artificial nest losses


Wear of trails

Width and depth of trails


Wear of alpine heats I

Total cover of mosses and lichens


Wear alpine heats II

Cover of crowberry


Comfortableness of the environment

Amount of litter in rest points

Social indicators


Communication about the land use planning and changes


Interactive planning and collaborative learning

Participation of local actors on public hearings/meetings, e.g. master plan meetings


Acceptability of tourism

How local people see the tourism


Land and resource use of locals

Opportunity to continue traditional land use


Contact details:

Project Coordinator
Jukka Jokimäki
University of Lapland
Arctic Centre
P.O.Box 122
96101-FI Rovaniemi

Main publications:

Jokimäki, J. & Kaisanlahti-Jokimäki, M.-L.. (toim.) 2007 :  Sustainability indicators for tourist destinations (in Finnish with English summary and conlusions). -Arktisen keskuksen tiedotteita 52. Lapin yliopisto, Arktinen keskus. Painatuskeskus Finland, Rovaniemi. 80 s.

Sulkava, P. & Norokorpi, Y. (toim.) 2007: Impact of nature tourism on vegetation and erosion in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park (In Finnish with English documentation page). -Metsähallituksen luonnonsuojelujulkaisuja. Sarja A 166.

Kangas, K., Sulkava, P., Koivuniemi, P., Tolvanen, A., Siikamäki, P. & Norokorpi, Y. 2007:  What determines the area of impact around campsites? A case study in a Finnish national park. -Forest Snow and Landscape Research 81: 139-150.

Kaisanlahti- Jokimäki, M.-L., Jokimäki, J., Huhta, E., Ukkola, M., Helle, P. & Ollila, T. 2008:  Territory occupancy and breeding success of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) around tourist destinations in northern Finland. -Ornis Fennica 85: xx-xx (in press).