Forbes, Bruce

Education: PhD Biogeography (McGill University)
Research Professor, Docent
Email: bruce.forbes (at) ulapland.fi
Tel. +358-40-8479 202

Research Professor Bruce C. Forbes leads the Global Change Research Group at the Arctic Centre, University of Lapland. He is also a Docent in Plant Ecology/Biogeography at the Faculty of Science, University of Oulu. Prof. Forbes has a background in applied ecology and geography in northern high latitudes, with special emphasis on permafrost regions. His experience is circumpolar, encompassing studies of rapid land use and climate change in Alaska, the Canadian High Arctic, various regions of northern Russia, and northernmost Fennoscandia. His approach is strongly interdisciplinary and participatory, aiming for the co-production of knowledge, particularly concerning local and regional stakeholder-driven research questions. He has conducted fieldwork annually in the Arctic for the past 30 years. 

Prof. Forbes is a member of the editorial boards of the journals Ecology and Society and Polar Geography. He is Finland’s contributing author to the Polar Systems chapter for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (2014) and lead author of the chapter on Resource Governance for the Arctic Council's Arctic Human Development Report II (2015). He holds adjunct positions as Institutional Fellow, Institute of Arctic Studies, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA, and Research Scientist, Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA.

For the past decade his research has focused on: (1) resilience in social-ecological systems in cooperation with Nenets and Sámi reindeer herders; and (2) annual growth of deciduous shrubs as proxy data sources for climate change and vegetation productivity in Northwest Eurasian tundra ecosystems. 

Prof. Forbes leads the Global Change research group at the Arctic Centre.

Recent publications

  • Barrio, I.C., Bueno, C.G., Gartzia, M., Soininen, E., Christie, K., Speed, J., Ravolainen, V., Forbes, B.C., Gauthier, G. Horstkotte, T., Hoset, K., Høye, T., Jónsdóttir, I., Levesque, E., Morsdorf, M., Olofsson, J., Wookey, P., and Hik, D.S. (2016) Biotic interactions mediate patterns of herbivore diversity in the Arctic. Global Ecology and Biogeography doi:10.1111/geb.12470.
  • Abbott, B.W. et al. (including B.C. Forbes) (2016) Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire: an expert assessment. Environmental Research Letters 11. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/3/034014.
  • Keskitalo, E.C.H., T. Horstkotte, S. Kivinen, B.C. Forbes and J. Käyhkö (2016) ‘‘Generality of mis-fit’’? The real-life difficulty of matching scales in an interconnected world. Ambio doi:10.1007/s13280-015-0757-2
  • Virtanen, R., L. Oksanen, T. Oksanen, J. Cohen, B.C. Forbes, B. Johansen, J. Käyhkö, J. Olofsson, J. Pulliainen and H. Tømmervik (2015) Where do the treeless tundra areas of northern highlands fit in the global biome system? Ecology and Evolution doi: 10.1002/ece3.1837.
  • Myers-Smith, I.H. S. Elmendorf, P. Beck, M. Wilmking, M. Hallinger, D. Blok, K.D. Tape, S.A. Rayback, M. Macias-Fauria, B.C. Forbes, J.D.M. Speed, N. Boulanger-Lapointe, C. Rixen, E. Levesque, N.M. Schmidt, C. Baittinger, A. Trant, M. Dawes, T. Lantz, S. Weijers, R.H. Jørgensen, A. Buchwal, A. Buras, A. Naito, V. Ravolainen, G. Schaepman-Strub, J. Wheeler, S. Wipf, D. Hik, K. Guay and M. Vellend (2015) Climate sensitivity of shrub growth across the tundra biome. Nature Climate Change DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2697.
  • Forbes, B.C. (2015) Arctic vegetation cover: patterns, processes and expected change. In: B. Evengård, J.N. Larsen and Ø. Paasche (eds.) The New Arctic. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 117-132. 
  • Larsen, J.N., O.A. Anisimov, A. Constable, A. Hollowed, N. Maynard, P. Prestrud, T. Prowse, J.M.R. Stone, T.V. Callaghan, M. Carey, P. Convey, A. Derocher, P.T. Fretwell, B.C. Forbes, S. Glomsrød, D. Hodgson, E. Hofmann, G.K. Hovelsrud, G.L. Ljubicic, H. Loeng, E. Murphy, S. Nicol, A. Oskal, J.D. Reist, P. Trathan, B. Weinecke and F. Wrona (2014) Polar regions. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part B: Regional Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1567-1612. 
  • Forbes, B.C., G. Kofinas, H. Beach, C. Brattland, P. Kankaanpää, C. Keskitalo, M. Lennert, C.L. Meek, V.K. Metcalf, M.D. Robards and O.R. Young (2015) Resource governance. In: J.N. Larsen and G. Fondahl (eds.) Arctic Human Development Report: Regional Processes and Global Linkages. Arctic Council, Akureyri. TemaNord. DOI: dx.doi.org/10.6027/TN2014-567
  • Myers-Smith, I.H., M. Hallinger, M. Wilmking, D. Blok, U.S. Klaassen, S. Rayback, S Weijers, A. Trant, K.D. Tape, A.T. Naito, M. Dawes, C. Rixen, S. Wipf, J. Wheeler, A. Buchwal, C. Baittinger, M. Macias-Fauria, B.C. Forbes, E. Levesque, N. Boulanger-Lapointe, I. Beil, and V. Ravolainen (2014) Methods for measuring arctic and alpine shrub growth. Earth Science Reviews 140: 1-13.  
  • H. E. Epstein, U. S. Bhatt, D. A. Walker, M. K. Raynolds, P. A. Bieniek, J. Comiso, J. Pinzon, C. J. Tucker, I. V. Polyakov, G. J. Jia, H. Zeng, B. C. Forbes, M. Macias-Fauria, L. Xu, R. Myneni, G. V. Frost, G. R. Shaver, M. S. Bret-Harte, M. C. Mack, A. V. Rocha. 2013: Vegetation. In: Jeffries, M.O., J.A. Richter-Menge, and J.E. Overland (eds.) http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/reportcard.
  • Ims, R.A., D. Ehrich, B.C. Forbes, B. Huntley, D.A. Walker and P.A. Wookey (2013). Terrestrial ecosystems. In: Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment: Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri, pp. 385-440. http://www.arcticbiodiversity.is/index.php/the-report/chapters/terrestrial-ecosystems
  • Huntington, H.P. T. Arnbom, F. Danielson, M. Enghoff, E. Euskirchen, B.C. Forbes et al. (2013). Disturbance, feedbacks and conservation. In: Meltofte, H. (ed.) 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment: Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri, pp. 630-651. http://www.arcticbiodiversity.is/index.php/the-report/chapters/disturbance-feedback-and-conservations
  • Forbes, B.C.  Cultural resilience of social-ecological systems in the Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Russia: A focus on reindeer nomads of the tundra. Ecology and Society 18(4): 36. http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-05791-180436 
  • Heqing, Z, G. Jia and B.C. Forbes. Shifts in Arctic phenology in response to climate and anthropogenic factors as detected from multiple satellite time series. Environmental Research Letters,8 035036, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/3/035036.
  • Forbes, B.C. (2013) Tundra biome. Oxford Bibliographies, Oxford University Press.
  • Bernes, C., K.A. Bråthen, B.C. Forbes, A. Hofgaard, J. Moen and J.D.M. Speed (2013) What are the impacts of reindeer/caribou (Rangifer tarandus L.) on arctic and alpine vegetation? A systematic review protocol. Environmental Evidence 2: 6 doi:10.1186/2047-2382-2-6.
  • Xu, L., R.B. Myneni, F.S. Chapin III, T.V. Callaghan, J.E. Pinzon, C.J. Tucker, Z. Zhu, J. Bi1, P. Ciais, H. Tømmervik, E.S. Euskirchen, B.C. Forbes, S.L. Piao, B.T. Anderson, S. Ganguly, R.R. Nemani, S.J. Goetz, P.S.A. Beck, A.G. Bunn, C. Cao and J.C. Stroeve (2013)  Temperature and vegetation seasonality diminishment over northern lands. Nature Climate Change DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1836
  • Macias Fauria, M., B.C. Forbes, P. Zetterberg and T. Kumpula (2012) Eurasian Arctic greening reveals teleconnections and the potential for novel ecosystems. Nature Climate Change doi: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1558.
  • Kumpula, T., Forbes, B.C., F. Stammler and N. Meschtyb (2012) Dynamics of a coupled system: multi-resolution remote sensing in assessing social-ecological responses during 25 years of gas field development in Arctic Russia. Remote Sensing 4: 1046-1068. Download pdf.
  • Walker, D.A., U.S. Bhatt, T.V. Callaghan, J.C. Comiso, H.E. Epstein,
 B.C. Forbes et al. (2011) Vegetation. In: Arctic Report Card 2011
  • Callaghan, T.V., Johansson, M., Brown, R.D., Groisman, P.Ya., Labba, N., Radionov, V., Bradley, R.S., Blangy, S., Bulygina, O.N., Christensen, T.R., Colman, J., Essery, R.L.H., Forbes, B.C. et al. (2011) Multiple effects of changes in Arctic snow cover. Ambio 40: 32–45. Download pdf
  • Walker, D.A., H.E. Epstein, M.K. Raynolds, P. Kuss,, M. Kopecky, G.V. Frost, F.J.A. Daniëls, M.O. Leibman, N.G. Moskalenko, G.V. Matyshak, O.V. Khitun, A.V. Khomutov, B.C. Forbes et al. (2011) Environment, vegetation and greenness (NDVI) along the North America and Eurasia Arctic transects. Environmental Research Letters doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/1/015504. Downlod pdf
  • Myers-Smith, I., B.C. Forbes et al. (2011) Shrub expansion in tundra ecosystems: Dynamics, impacts and research priorities. Environmental Research Letters doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045509. Download pdf
  • Yu, Q., H.E. Epstein, D.A. Walker, G.V. Frost and B.C. Forbes (2011) Modeling dynamics of tundra plant communities on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia, in response to climate change and grazing pressure. Environmental Research Letters doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045505.  Download pdf
  • Forbes, B.C., F. Stammler, T. Kumpula, N. Meschtyb, A. Pajunen, and E. Kaarlejärvi (2011) Yamal reindeer breeders, gas extraction, and changes in the environment: adaptation potential of nomad economy and its limits (in Russian). Environmental Planning and Management 1(12)C: 52-68. Download pdf
  • Kumpula, T., A. Pajunen, E.M. Kaarlejärvi, B.C. Forbes, and F. Stammler (2011) Land use and land cover change in arctic Russia: ecological and social implications of industrial development. Global Environmental Change 21: 550–562. Download pdf
  • Whiteman, G., R. de Vos, F.S. Chapin III, V. Yli-Pelkonen, J. Niemelä and B.C. Forbes (2011) Business strategies and the transition to low-carbon cities. Business, Strategy and the Environment 24(4): 251-265, doi:10.1002/bse.691. Download pdf.
  • Murray, M.S., L. Anderson, G. Cherkashov, C. Cuyler, B.C. Forbes et al. 2010, International Study of Arctic Change: Science Plan. ISAC International Program Office, Stockholm. Download [3.7 Mb pdf]
  • Callaghan, T.V., Johansson, M., Brown, R.D., Groisman, P.Ya., Labba, N., Radionov, V., Barry, R.G., Bradley, R.S., Blangy, S., Bulygina, O.N., Christensen, T.R., Essery, R.L.H., Forbes, B.C. et al. (2012) Changing snow cover and its impacts. In: Climate change and the Arctic cryosphere: Snow, water, ice and permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA). AMAP, Oslo.
  • Macdonald, C., Lockhart, L., Gilman, A., Baker, T.  Bakke, T., Cantin, D., Dam, M., Davies, I., Forbes, B.C. et al. (2010) Effects of oil and gas activity on the environment and human health. In: Assessment of Oil & Gas Activities. AMAP, Oslo. Download [9,6 Mb pdf]
  • Walker, D.A., B.C. Forbes et al. (2011) Cumulative effects of rapid land-cover and land-use changes on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. In: G. Gutman and A. Reissel (eds.). Eurasian Arctic Land Cover and Land Use in a Changing Climate. Springer, Berlin, pp. 207-235. Download [1,4 Mb pdf].
  • Bartsch, A., T. Kumpula, B.C. Forbes and F. Stammler (2010) Detection of snow surface thawing and refreezing using QuikSCAT: implications for reindeer herding. Ecological Applications doi:10.1890/09-1927.1. Dowload [7 Mb pdf]
  • Forbes, B.C. (2010) Reindeer herding. In: Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010: Selected indicators of change. CAFF International Secretariat, Akureyri, Iceland, pp. 86-88. Download [pdf]
  • Forbes, B.C. (2010) Marks from vehicles in Arctic tundra. In: Nellemann, C. and E. Corcoran (eds.). Dead Planet, Living Planet – Biodiversity and Ecosystem Restoration for Sustainable Development. A Rapid Response Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme, GRID-Arendal, p. 35. Download [8 Mb pdf]
  • Forbes, B.C., E. Kaarlejärvi T. Kumpula, N. Meschtyb, A. Pajunen, F. Stammler and T. Tuisku (2010) Lessons from the ENSINOR interdisciplinary research project. In: T. Huttunen and M. Ylikangas (eds.) Witnessing Change in Contemporary Russia. Kikimora, Helsinki, pp. 406-427.
  • Crate S.A., Forbes, B.C., King, L., Kruse, J. (2010) Contact with nature. In: J.N. Larsen, P. Schweitzer and G. Fondahl (eds.) Arctic Social Indicators: a follow-up to the Arctic Human Development Report. TemaNord 2010:519. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen, pp. 109-127. Download [pdf]
  • Kumpula, T., Forbes, B.C., Stammler, F. (2010). Remote Sensing and Local Knowledge of Hydrocarbon Exploitation: The Case of Bovanenkovo, Yamal Peninsula, West Siberia, Russia. Arctic, vol. 63, No. 2 (June 2010); p. 165-178. Download full text [3 Mb pdf].
  • Pajunen, A, E. Kaarlejärvi, B.C. Forbes and R. Virtanen (2010) Classification, compositional differentiation and vegetation-environment relationships of willow-characterised vegetation in the western Eurasian Arctic .Journal of Vegetation Science 21: 107–119
  • Forbes, B.C., Macias Fauria, M. & Zetterberg, P. (2010) Russian Arctic warming and ’greening’ are closely tracked by tundra shrub willows. Global Change Biology 16, 1542–1554
  • Forbes, B.C., F. Stammler, T. Kumpula, N. Meschtyb, A. Pajunen, and E. Kaarlejärvi (2009) High resilience in the Yamal-Nenets social-ecological system, West Siberian Arctic, Russia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 22041-22048. Download full text [2 Mb pdf] - Высокая сопротивляемость к внешним воздействиям социально-экологической системы Ямала (север Западной Сибири, Россия). [pdf].
  • Forbes, B.C. &  Kumpula, T. (2009) The ecological role and geography of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in northern Eurasia. Geography Compass 3/4: 1356–1380. See abstract here, contact Bruce Forbes for a full  PDF
  • Walker D.A., M.O. Leibman, H.E. Epstein, B.C. Forbes et al. (2009) Tundra greening on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: Spatial and temporal patterns of NDVI and the roles of rapid permafrost degradation and landslides. Environmental Research Letters doi:10.1088/1748-9326/4/4/045004.
  • Forbes, B.C. &  Stammler, F. (2009): Arctic climate change discourse: the contrasting politics of research agendas in the West and Russia. Polar Research 28: 28-42. 
  • Kitti, H., Forbes, B.C., Oksanen, J. (2009): Long- and short-term effects of reindeer grazing on tundra wetland vegetation. Polar Biology 32: 253-261. [full text]
  • Forbes, B.C. (2008): Equity, Vulnerability and Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems: a Contemporary Example from the Russian Arctic. Research in Social Problems and Public Policy 15:203–236. In Russian.
  • Willard, B.E., D.J. Cooper and B.C. Forbes (2007) Natural regeneration of alpine tundra vegetation after human trampling: a 42-year data set from Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research 39: 177-183.
  • Forbes, B.C., M. Bölter, L. Müller-Wille, J. Hukkinen, F. Müller, N. Gunslay, and Y. Konstantinov (eds.) (2006) Reindeer management in northernmost Europe: linking practical and scientific knowledge in social-ecological systems. Ecological Studies 184. Springer, Berlin.
  • Forbes, B.C. (2006) The challenges of modernity for reindeer management in northernmost Europe . In: Forbes, B.C. et al. (eds.) Reindeer management in northernmost Europe: linking practical and scientific knowledge in social-ecological systems. Ecological Studies 184. Springer, Berlin, pp. 11-25.
  • Kitti, H., N. Gunslay and B.C. Forbes (2006) Defining the quality of reindeer pastures: the perspectives of Sámi reindeer herders. In: Forbes, B.C. et al. (eds.) Reindeer management in northernmost Europe: linking practical and scientific knowledge in social-ecological systems. Ecological Studies 184. Springer, Berlin, pp. 141-165.
  • Kitti, H. and B.C. Forbes (2006) Vegetation structure, cover and biomass of subarctic tundra wetlands used as summer pastures. In: Forbes, B.C. et al. (eds.) Reindeer management in northernmost Europe: linking practical and scientific knowledge in social-ecological systems. Ecological Studies 184. Springer, Berlin, pp. 187-198.
  • Soppela, S., M. Turunen, B.C. Forbes et al. (2006) The quality of summer pasture plants of reindeer and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In: Forbes, B.C. et al. (eds.) Reindeer management in northernmost Europe: linking practical and scientific knowledge in social-ecological systems. Ecological Studies 184. Springer, Berlin, pp. 199-216.
  • Chapin, F.S., III, M. Berman, T.V. Callaghan, A.-S. Crepin, K. Danell, B.C. Forbes, G. Kofinas, D. McGuire, M. Nuttall, C. Pungowiyi, O. Young, and S. Zimov (2006) Polar Systems . In: R. Scholes (ed.) Millennium Assessment. Island Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 717-743.
  • Müller-Wille, L., J. Hukkinen, F. Müller, M. Bölter and B.C. Forbes (2006) Synthesis: environmental and socio-political conditions for modern reindeer management in Europe’s North. In: Forbes, B.C. et al. (eds.) Reindeer management in northernmost Europe: linking practical and scientific knowledge in social-ecological systems. Ecological Studies 184. Springer, Berlin, pp. 365-379.
  • Kofinas, G., B.C. Forbes and 10 others (2005) A research plan for the study of rapid change, resilience and vulnerability in social-ecological systems of the Arctic. Common Property Resource Digest 73:1-10.
  • Nuttall, M., F. Berkes, B.C. Forbes, G. Kofinas, T. Vlassova and G. Wenzel (2005) Hunting, Herding, Fishing and Gathering. In: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,pp.649-690.
  • Meschtyb, N.A., B.C. Forbes and P. Kankaanpää (2005) Social Impact Assessment along Russia’s Northern Sea Route: petroleum transport and the Arctic Operational Platform (ARCOP). Arctic InfoNorth 58:322-327.
  • Forbes, B.C. (2005) Conservation; Environmental problems; Habitat loss; Polar steppe; Reindeer; Sedge meadows; Tundra; Vegetation distribution; Wet tundra, Wilderness. Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. In: M. Nuttall (ed.) Encyclopedia of the Arctic. Routledge, New York.
  • Forbes, B.C., A. Tolvanen, K. Laine and F.-E. Wielgolaski (2005) Rates and processes of natural regeneration in disturbed habitats. In: F.-E. Wielgolaski (ed.) Plant ecology, herbivory and human impact in northern mountain birch forests. Ecological Studies 180, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 193-202.
  • Tolvanen, A., B.C. Forbes, S. Wall and Y. Norokorpi and (2005) Recreation activities at treeline and interactions with other land use. In: F.-E. Wielgolaski (ed.) Plant ecology, herbivory and human impact in northern mountain birch forests. Ecological Studies 180, Springer-Verlag, Berlin,pp.
    203-217.
  • Forbes, B.C., N. Fresco, A. Shvidenko, K. Danell and F.S. Chapin III (2004) Geographic variations in anthropogenic drivers that influence the vulnerability and resilience of high latitude social-ecological systems . Ambio 33:377-382.
  • Whiteman, G., B.C. Forbes, J. Niemelä and F.S. Chapin III (2004) Bringing high-latitude feedback and resilience into the corporate boardroom. Ambio 33:371-376.
  • Chapin, F.S. III, P. Angelstam, M. Apps, F. Berkes, C. Folke, B.C. Forbes, G. Juday and O. Peterson (2004). Vulnerability and resilience of high-latitude ecosystems to environmental and social change. Ambio 33:344-349.
  • Forbes, B.C., C. Monz and A. Tolvanen (2004) Tourism ecological impacts in terrestrial polar ecosystems. In: R. Buckley (ed.) Environmental Impacts of Ecotourism. CAB International. pp. 155-170.
  • Forbes, B.C. (2004) Impacts of energy development in polar regions. In: C.J. Cleveland (ed.) Encyclopedia of Energy. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 93-105.
  • Forbes, B.C. (2004) Flax in flux: the waxing and waning of ‘people plants’ in Finland and beyond. In: G. Kearsley and B. Fitzharris (eds.) Glimpses of a Gaian world. School of Social Science, University of Otago, pp. 17-38.
  • Sumina, O.I. and B.C. Forbes (2003) Vegetation responses to anthropogenic disturbance: a useful indicator for global change assessment? In: R.O. Rasmussen and N. Koroleva (eds.) Social and Environmental Impacts in the North. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 207-223.
  • Mascia, M., J.P. Brosius, T. Dobson, B.C. Forbes, G. Nabhan and M. Tomforde (2003) Conservation and the social sciences. Conservation Biology 17:649-650.
  • Forbes, B.C. and J.D. McKendrick (2002) Polar tundra. In: M. Perrow and A.J. Davy (eds.) Handbook of Ecological Restoration. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 355-375.
  • Weladji, R. and B.C. Forbes (2002) Disturbance effects of human activities on Rangifer tarandus habitat: implications for life history and population dynamics. Polar Geography 26: 171-186.

 

Bruce-Forbes-AC-staff.jpg
Sampling live stems of tall willow shrubs for dendro-climatological studies along the Yuribei River, Yamal Peninsula.

Current and recent research projects:

Nordic Centre of Excellence - ReiGN (2016-2020) ‘Reindeer in a Globalizing North: Resilience, Adaptations and Pathways for Actions’. (PI Øystein Holand, Norwegian University of Life Sciences) 

JPI Climate project – HUMANOR (2015-2018) ‘HUMan-ANimal Relations Under Climate Change in NORthern Eurasia’ (PI Bruce Forbes, Arctic Centre)

Academy of Finland project - RISES (2012-2016) 'Resilience inSocial-Ecological Systems of Northwest Eurasia' (PI Bruce Forbes, Arctic Centre)

Nordic Centre of Excellence - TUNDRA (2011-2015) ‘How to Preserve the Tundra in a Warming Climate’ (PI Lauri Oksanen, Univ. of Turku)

Application of Space-Based Technologies and Models to Address Land-Cover/ Land-Use Change Problems on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia’ (2013-2016) funded by NASA’s Land Use Land Cover Change Program (PI Skip Walker, Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks)
Alaska Fairbanks)